公式运行的微调

英语 admin 9个月前 (01-13) 387次浏览 0个评论

倒装句和感叹句

倒装和感叹,都是英文通过对词序顺序的调整,来表达情调或者感叹的意思。
在对倒装句和感叹句处理时,应该把它倒回正常的陈述句模式。比如:
例1.
Never was his work about the history of Roman Empire valued by contemporary critics.

解析:这是一个倒装句,需要把被倒装的部分先放回去,得到如下句子:
His work about the history of Roman Empire was never valued by contemporary critics.

接下来按照之前的处理步骤处理:
His work(主语) about the history(定语 1) of Roman Empire(定语2) was never valued(谓语) by contemporary critics(状语).
根据规则,倒序前置:
他关于罗马帝国的历史作品从未被当代的评论家所重视。

例2.
What a remarkable day in life it is!

解析:这是个感叹句,同理,需要先变为陈述句。即:
It is a remarkable day in life.
接下来只要把定语 in life 前置到表语前面就可以了:
这是生命中多么精彩的一天啊!

名词性从句

名词性从句包含三种从句模式:主语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句。
主语从句和宾语从句实际上是一回事,只是从句位置不同。英文中主语从句不常见,通常写成形式主语的形式。
名词性从句最大的特点,就是最为宾语或者主句的从句部分是一个完整的句子,所以处理的时候先把作为宾语或者主语的从句看做一个单独的句子处理,完成后代入原句即可。

例1.
I think that the man in the car is Tom.

解析:宾语从句,先处理从句部分:
the man(主语)in the car(定语)is(谓语)Tom(宾语).
代入原句:我认为在车里的那个人是 Tom。

例2.
That no one can succeed without help is true.

解析:主语从句,处理从句部分:
That no one(主语) can succeed(谓语) without help(状语).
代入原句:没有人能够在没有帮助的情况下成功,这个说法是正确的

例3.
A long-held view of the history of English colonies that became the United States has been that England’s policy toward these colonies before 1763 was dictated by commercial interests and that a change to a more imperial policy, dominated by expansionist militarist objectives, generated the tensions that ultimately led to the American Revolution.

解析:先从宏观角度划分句子的主干:
(A long-held view 主语) ((of the history 1) (of English colonies 2) (that became the United States 3) 定语) (has been 谓语) (that England’s policy toward these colonies before 1763 was dictated by commercial interests 宾语 1) and (that a change to a more imperial policy, dominated by expansionist militarist objectives, generated the tensions that ultimately led to the American Revolution. 宾语2)

接着分别处理两个宾语从句:
一:
England’s policy(主语) toward these colonies(定语 1) before 1763(定语2) was dictated(谓语) by commercial interests.(状语)
根据规则,状语、定语前置,句子中文翻译为:
在1763年之前针对这些殖民地的英国的政策是依据商业利益而被制定的。

二:
a change(主语) to a more imperial policy(定语), dominated by expansionist militarist objectives(插入语), generated(谓语) the tensions(宾语) that ultimately led to the American Revolution(定语).
插入语位置不变,定语前置、内部倒序
朝着一个更加帝国主义化的政策的改变,在扩张主义军事目标的主导下,产生了最终导致美国革命的紧张局面。

原句根据规则处理,并把两个宾语从句代入原句:
对构成美国的那些英国殖民地历史的一个长期的观点认为,在1763年之前针对这些殖民地的英国的政策是依据商业利益而被制定的;并且,朝着一个更加帝国主义化的政策的改变,在扩张主义军事目标的主导下,产生了最终导致美国革命的紧张局面。

同位语从句
同位语的本质,就是用一个句子去解释一个名词的内容。这个名词往往是一个抽象概念的名词,比如:idea, thought, advice, dream, information, plan, suggestion等。

例4.
He proposed a new idea that we should leave today.

解析:
He(主) proposed(谓语) a new idea(宾语) that we should leave today(同位语从句).

从句部分 “that we should leave today” 不是对宾语 new idea 的限定,而是解释了 new idea 的内容,处理的时候只需要把同位语从句作为单句处理,用 “即”连接即可:
他提出了一个新的想法,即我们应该今天离开。
或者向定语从句一样倒序前置:
他提出了一个我们今天应该离开的新想法。

例5.
He proposed a new idea that no one could understand.

解析:这个句子就是一个定语从句,从句部分“that no one could understand”对定语 new idea 起到限定的作用。
他提出了一个没人能理解的新想法。

对同位语从句的处理既可以像定语从句一样倒序前置,也可以把从句部分作为一个独立的句子单独处理。

例6.
The great interest in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades indicates the strong feeling in our society that all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities.

解析:
划分主干层次:
The great interest(主语) (in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades 定语)indicates(谓语) the strong feeling(宾语) (in our society 定语) (that all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities. 同位语从句)

单独处理同位语从句:
all citizens(主语), whatever their special conditions(插入语), deserve(谓语) the opportunity(宾语) to fully develop their capabilities(定语)。
根据倒序前置规则:
所有市民,不论他们的特殊情况如何,都应当得到充分发展他们的能力的机会

代入原句:
在过去30多年中在公共教育领域显示出来的对智障儿童的巨大兴趣表明了我们社会中国的一种强烈感受,即所有市民,不论他们的特殊情况如何,都应当得到充分发展他们的能力的机会。

词的同位语

同位语从句是用一个句子去解释一个名词的内容,词的同位语就是用一个名词解释另外一个名词。
比如:
例1,
Tom, my brother, is coming.

这里的 Tom 和 my brother 是同一个人,my brother是主语的同位语。

同位语后面还可以有定语

例2.
Tom, my brother from America, is coming.

处理方式和定语的汉化规则相同
汤姆,我来自于美国的兄弟,马上就来了。

词的同位语在外形上和插入语很像,同位语一定是标点符号 + 名词性结构 + 定语(可以没有)构成的。

例3,
We are thus led to distinguish, within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering, a more formal kind of education — that of direct tuition or schooling.

划分主干:
We(主) are thus led to distinguish(谓语词组), within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering(插入语), a more formal kind(宾语) of education(定语) — that of direct tuition or schooling(同位语).

根据同位语判断标准 标点符号(破折号)+ 名词性结构(that 代词也是名词结构)所以第一处是插入语,第二处是同位语
根据插入语做状语倒序和同位语倒序前置的规则(本句插入语较长,放在句首会更加通顺),得到结论:
在我们一直思考的广义教学过程中,我们被引导去鉴别一个更加正式的教育种类,即直接教育或学校教育的那种种类。

主语从句和强调句的区分

当遇到“it is …… that”(可以是疑问代词what等)的时候,可能会出现两种情况,就是主语从句和强调句。
1、主语从句的特征:that从句后面是完整的句子
2、强调句that后面不是完整的句子。处理强调句只需把it is that去掉然后按照正常句子处理即可

例1.
It is the demand for freedom that makes people fight hard.

解析:本句 that 后面并不是完整的句子,所以是强调句,去了 it is that
The demand for freedom makes people fight hard.
对自由的渴望使得人们努力战斗。

如果强调句 that 后面也是一个完整的句子,例如:“It is in his eyes that I see confidence”,则主语从句和强调句重合,按照主语从句的规则,“I see confidence”部分单独处理,这样就不会混淆。

例2.
Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers, coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and with the desire of individuans to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it.

解析:
“coupled(分词结构) with the desire(介词短语) of businessmen(介词短语) to maximize profits(介词短语) and with the desire(介词短语) of individuans(介词短语) to maximize their incomes(介词短语)”为句子插入语,根据倒序和并列不变序规则:
“要最大化利润的商人的欲望和要最大化收入的个人的欲望结合起来”

Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it.
句子是 it is that 模型。根据规则判断 that 后面没有主语,不是完整的句子,所以是强调句,去掉 it is that 后划分层次:
Thus, in the American economic system(状语) the demand(主语) of individual consumers(定语) together determine(谓语) what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it(宾语).
根据倒序前置规则,并把插入语代入原句:
所以在美国经济体系中,个人消费者的需求,与最大化利润的商人的欲望和最大化收入的个人的欲望结合起来,共同决定了应该生产什么,以及如何利用资源去生产。

双宾语模式

双宾语,顾名思义就是两个宾语
例1.
I consider him as a friend who is helpful when I am in trouble.

这个句子的主干“I consider him”是一个很清晰的主谓宾结构,但是如果根据公式把后面的都看作是定语,划分层次:as a friend(1) who is helpful(2) when I am in trouble(3)倒序后明显翻译不通顺。问题就在于 him 后面的 as a friend 也是一个宾语,不过是用 as as friend 去解释 him 而已(类似于词的同位语)。所以这句话的主谓宾实际是“I consider him as a friend”。后面继续倒序放在就近宾语的前面,得出:我把他看做是一个在我有困难的时候能够帮忙的朋友。

例2.
He is considered as a friend who is helpful when I am in trouble.

这是上个例句的被动模型,通过被动省略了一个宾语。这句话的主干是:He is considered as a friend,直接倒序前置后面的定语:他被看做是一个在我有困难的时候能够帮忙的朋友。

例3.
Traditionally, legal learning has been viewed in such institutions as the special preserve of lawyers rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person.

解析:
第一步:并列模式。rather than 是转折,属于并列,a necessary part 和 the special preserve 两个名词词组并列。

第二步:划分主干
Traditionally(状语), legal learning(主语) has been viewed(谓语) in such institutions(状语) as the special preserve(宾语) of lawyers(定语) rather than a necessary part(宾语) of the intellectual equipment of an educated person(定语).
这是一个被动的双宾语

第三步:
根据规则,定状前置,并列不变序,内部倒序。得到结论:
传统上,法律的学习在这些机构中被看做是律师们的特别保留,而不是一个受过教育的人智力储备的必要部分。

宾语 + 状语 模式

之前推导公式的时候说过,宾语后面除了定语还可以是状语。如果是定语则前置,宾语后面如果是状语的话则放在句首尾。

例1.
I finished my work in two hours after receiving the order.
这个句子里并与“my work”后面的“in two hours after receiving the order”就是状语,内部倒序,放在句首尾即可:
在收到命令两小时后我完成了我的工作。

那么,怎样区分宾语后面的是定语还是状语呢?
一般来讲,宾语后面表示如下概念的时候,是状语:

  1. 时间地点。当然有时候时间地点也可以当定语用,具体根据不同的句子,看放在哪里合适。
  2. 条件。比如:I can do it if you help me.
  3. 因果。比如:I left my home because she was back.
  4. 比较。比如:I hate him more than he hates me.
  5. 程度。比如:I agree with you to the extent that you told us.(我在你告诉我们的范围内同意你的观点)
  6. 方式。比如:I finished my work in the way you told me.
  7. 举例。比如:i have many friends, such as Tom.

状语并列模式

例1.
I love you and I hate you.

这句是上文说到过的并列模式,并列前后是完整的句子,状语并列模式(这里的并列指的是条件、因果等关系)就是状语连接词前后为完整的句子。

例2.
I hate you because I love you.
这句就是状语并列,I hate you 和 I love you 为因果关系,处理方式也和之前一样,分为两个独立的句子单独处理,然后合并。

例3.
Virginia Woolf’s provocative statement about her intentions in writing Mrs. Dalloway has regularly been ignored by the critics, since it highlights an aspect of her literary interests very different from the traditional picture of the “poetic” novelist.

解析:主干为:Virginia Woolf’s provocative statement has regularly been ignored,但是从 since 开始的原因状语也是一个完整的句子,主干为:it highlights an aspect。所以since前后两个独立的句子各自处理。

划分层次:
Virginia Woolf’s provocative statement(主) about her intentions in writing Mrs. Dalloway(定) has regularly been ignored(谓) by the critics(状)
倒序翻译:
弗吉尼亚·伍尔芙在写《达洛威夫人》这本书的时候关于她的写作目的的激烈评论,一直以来被批评家们所忽视。

it(主) highlights(谓) an aspect(宾) of her literary interests very different from the traditional picture of the “poetic” novelist(定).
倒序:
它强调了一个和诗歌派小说家的传统理解非常不同的她自己文学兴趣的一个方面。

用since连接句子前后:
弗吉尼亚·伍尔芙在写《达洛威夫人》这本书的时候关于她的写作目的的激烈评论,一直以来被批评家们所忽视,因为它强调了一个和诗歌派小说家的传统理解非常不同的她自己文学兴趣的一个方面。

省略句

例1.
My leg aches, and with it my arm.
这是一个省略句,因为前后句子的结构和意思一样,只是具体的主语不同,所以就把后句的谓语和宾语部分省略了,原句:“My leg aches, and with it my arm aches, too.”
因为中文没有省略,所以翻译的时候应该补全原句后翻译:我的腿疼,同时我的手也疼。

例2.
Until these issues are resolved, a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected, and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.

解析:这是一个省略句,标志为:”and with it”。
划分主干:
Until these issues are resolved(状), a technology(主) of behavior(定) will continue to be rejected(谓), and with it possibly the only(主) way to solve our problems(定).
定语倒序前置:
直到这些问题被解决,一个行为方面的技术将会依然被拒绝,同时解决我们问题的唯一方法也会被拒绝。

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